(Known as Phospholipids, Phosphatidylcholine)

tickAids definition & fat loss
tickMuscle Builder
tickControls cortisol
How does it work?
Phosphatidylcholine belongs to a special category of fat-soluble substances called phospholipids (sometimes called lecithin). It is needed to repair damaged cells, for normal brain function, and to transport fat out of fat cells so it can be burned for energy.
Who is it used for?
Phosphatidylcholine is especially useful for people wanting to build muscle and lose fat, as it aids muscle repair and recovery, and may also boost fat loss.
How does it work?
Phospholipids are found in cell membranes, the "envelopes" which surround and protect the cells in your body. Phosphatidylcholine supplies choline to your cells, which is needed for the transport of fats in and out of cells. It is also needed for normal brain function, helping to transfer signals from one brain cell to another.

The human body can make choline by itself. However, additional amounts from the diet are considered essential under certain circumstances, and may aid fat loss, when combined with other lipotropic nutrients [1]. In fact, animal studies show that choline, when combined with caffeine and carnitine, is almost as effective as exercise at promoting fat loss [2]. A study of healthy women also shows that choline aids fat loss [3], and the injectable form of phosphatidylcholine has been widely used in Brazil in various clinical conditions where there are fat deposits in the thighs, hips, abdomen, and arms.

Choline supplements have also been shown to improve performance during endurance exercise (such as a marathon), but don't appear as effective during high-intensity exercise such as sprinting (where a supplement like creatine would be more beneficial).

Choline is found in soybeans, liver, oatmeal, cabbage, and cauliflower. Soybeans, egg yolks, meat, and some vegetables also contain phosphatidylcholine. However, the amounts found in food are typically very small, and phosphatidylcholine supplements are usually recommended.
How do I use it?
The recommended amount of choline is 425 milligrams per day for women and 550 milligrams per day for men. Studies on choline supplementation show that 1-5 grams of choline is neccesary to improve exercise performance and mental function.
What results can I expect?
Short-term supplementation (several days) with choline tends to improve endurance exercise performance. Several weeks of daily use is required to increase fat loss.
What can it be combined with?
Studies show that choline is especially effective when combined with carnitine and caffeine, both of which have similar benefits in terms of fat loss and exercise performance.

1. Hoeger WW, Harris C, Long EM, Hopkins DR. (1998). Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Advances in Therapy, 15, 305-314
2. Hongu N, Sachan DS. (2000). Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 152-157
3. N. Hongu & D. S. Sachan. (2003). Carnitine and Choline Supplementation with Exercise Alter Carnitine Profiles, Biochemical Markers of Fat Metabolism and Serum Leptin Concentration in Healthy Women. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 84-89

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