(Known as Histidine, L-Histidine)

tickPart of the Amino Acid group
tickBoosts energy
tickMuscle Builder
How does it work?
L-Histidine is an amino acid. It combines with Beta-Alanine to form the naturally-occurring dipeptide Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). Carnosine is found in skeletal muscle, heart and brain.
Who is it used for?
L-Histidine, as a means of elevating Carnosine concentrations in muscle, is useful for anyone participating in explosive sports, such as sprinting and weight training.
How does it work?
Carnosine is found mainly in type II muscle fibres. These are the "fast-twitch" fibres that are important for explosive sports, such as sprinting and weight training. Increasing the concentration of carnosine in muscle is important to athletes because Carnosine increases intramuscular hydrogen ion (H+) buffering capacity. The production of H+ leads to painful muscle fatigue. Carnosine increases your ability to work harder by preventing your muscle from becoming too acidic during intense physical exercise. And more Carnosine in muscle maintains low levels of acidity in muscle, allowing you to train harder and longer.

Carnosine is also a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme that's responsible for generating Nitric Oxide. Nitric Oxide is a free form gas produced naturally in the body and is used to to control the circulation of the blood, as well as regulate activities of the brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach and other organs.

High-intensity training causes oxidative stress in the muscles, resulting in depleted Carnosine levels. The free radicals produced through high intensity training cause lipid peroxidation as well as carbonylation of proteins and phospholipids. This causes proteins to break up in a process known as proteolysis. Research suggests that Carnosine may combat these reactions if there is enough of it in the muscles.

Carnosine biosynthesis is dependent on availability of Beta-Alanine and L-Histidine. A deficiency in L-Histidine reduces muscle Carnosine levels, while supplementation with it increases Carnosine levels. Research suggests that supplementation with Beta-Alanine and L-Histidine is the most effective way to benefit from elevated levels of Carnosine.

How do I use it?
Take approximately 1300-1500 milligrams of Beta-Alanine and 300-400 milligrams of L-Histidine 30-60 minutes prior to exercise.
What results can I expect?
Elevating muscular carnosine concentrations allows you to train with greater effort and intensity. Most users notice a reduction in muscle fatigue and the perception of effort.
What can it be combined with?
Anecdotal reports from athletes and bodybuilders suggest that Beta-Alanine and L-Histidine work well with Citrulline Malate and/or Citrulline Ethyl Ester.

1. Dunnett M & Harris RC: Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-Histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of gluteus medius. Equine Vet J 30: 499 - 504, 1999
2. Maynard ML, Bossonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GA: High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and in rat soleous muscle. J Nut 131: 287-290, 2001

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